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The primary thing you should know about smoke alarms is that there are two basic types: Ionization and photoelectric smoke alarms.
Ionization Smoke Alarms are able to quickly detect fast moving fires. Think of a candle catching a curtain on fire- it happens quickly. A Photoelectric Smoke Alarm is quicker in sensing a slower, smoky fire- such as an electrical fire that starts within your walls.
A Dual Sensor Smoke Alarm combines the two types: photoelectric and ionization.
Because there is no way of telling what type of fire may occur in your home, it is strongly recommended by the USFA to have both an ionization smoke alarm and photoelectric alarm- or a dual sensor smoke alarm to detect both types of fires.
For those with hearing disabilities, First Alert also has smoke alarms that utilize flashing strobe lights and vibrations to alert them to danger.
Minimum coverage for smoke alarms, as recommended by the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), is one smoke alarm on every level, and in every bedroom.
For CO alarms, the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) recommends that CO alarms be installed on every level and in the central location outside each bedroom. For added protection, install additional CO alarms in every bedroom.
Specific legal requirements for smoke and CO alarm installation vary from state to state and from region to region. Check with your local Fire Department for current requirements in your area or visit the First Alert state legislation page.
NOTE: For any location, make sure no door or other obstruction could keep carbon monoxide or smoke from reaching the Alarm.
The following locations should be avoided in smoke or CO alarm installation. These locations may cause nuisance alarms or reduce the performance of your alarm.
Install at least 5 feet (1.5 meters) away from any cooking appliance. Air currents can draw cooking smoke into the smoke sensor and cause unwanted alarms. Avoid humid areas. Install your alarm at least 10 feet (3 meters) from common sources of humidity:
Keep alarms out of direct sunlight.
All smoke alarms consist of two basic parts: a sensor to detect the smoke and a very loud electronic horn to alert the surrounding area. Smoke detectors can run off of a 9-volt battery or 120-volt house current. Let's examine the two most common types of smoke alarms used today: photoelectric detectors and ionization detectors. And, we'll also take a look inside an ionization detector. We'll start with photoelectric detectors.
Our alarms are designed to be as maintenance-free as possible, but there are a few things you can do to make sure the alarms run properly every time:
Your units should be tested once per week, when possible. Regular testing with the "Test" button helps ensure that your alarm has a reliable power source. The test button is usually located on the side or top of your unit. Refer to your user's manual for full instructions.
Yes, read more about each alarm type and how the test button works:
Clean your alarms at least once a month. This ensures that smoke or CO can reach the alarm's sensing chamber.
Gently vacuum the outside of the alarm using your household vacuum's soft brush attachment. A can of clean compressed air (sold at office supply stores) may also be used.
Excess moisture can damage the unit. Never use water, cleaners, solvents, or air compressor machines to clean your alarm.
Occasionally, you will walk into a store and a bell will go off as you cross the threshold. If you look, you will often notice that a photo beam detector is being used. Near the door on one side of the store is a light (either a white light and a lens or a low-power laser), and on the other side is a photodetector that can "see" the light. When you cross the beam of light, you block it. The photo detector senses the lack of light and triggers a bell. You can imagine how this same type of sensor could act as a smoke detector. If it ever got smoky enough in the store to block the light beam sufficiently, the bell would go off. But there are two problems here:
There would have to be a LOT of smoke before the alarm would go off -- the smoke would have to be thick enough to completely block out the light. It takes quite a bit of smoke to do that.
Photoelectric smoke detectors therefore use light in a different way. Inside the smoke detector there is a light and a sensor, but they are positioned at 90-degree angles to one another, like this:
In the normal case, the light from the light source on the left shoots straight across and misses the sensor. When smoke enters the chamber, however, the smoke particles scatter the light and some amount of light hits the sensor:
The sensor then sets off the horn in the smoke detector.
Photoelectric detectors are better at sensing smoky fires, such as a smoldering mattress.
Ionization smoke detectors use an ionization chamber and a source of ionizing radiation to detect smoke. This type of smoke detector is more common because it is inexpensive and better at detecting the smaller amounts of smoke produced by flaming fires.
Inside an ionization detector is a small amount (perhaps 1/5000th of a gram) of americium-241. The radioactive element americium has a half-life of 432 years, and is a good source of alpha particles.
Another way to talk about the amount of americium in the detector is to say that a typical detector contains 0.9 microcurie of americium-241. A curie is a unit of measure for nuclear material. If you are holding a curie of something in your hand, you are holding an amount of material that undergoes 37,000,000,000 nuclear transformations per second. Generally, that means that 37 billion atoms in the sample are decaying and emitting a particle of nuclear radiation (such as an alpha particle) per second. One gram of the element radium generates approximately 1 curie of activity (Marie Curie, the woman after whom the curie is named, did much of her research using radium).
Let's take a look now at the ionization chamber.
An ionization chamber is very simple. It consists of two plates with a voltage across them, along with a radioactive source of ionizing radiation, like this:
The alpha particles generated by the americium have the following property: They ionize the oxygen and nitrogen atoms of the air in the chamber. To "ionize" means to "knock an electron off of." When you knock an electron off of an atom, you end up with a free electron (with a negative charge) and an atom missing one electron (with a positive charge). The negative electron is attracted to the plate with a positive voltage, and the positive atom is attracted to the plate with a negative voltage (opposites attract, just like with magnets). The electronics in the smoke detector sense the small amount of electrical current that these electrons and ions moving toward the plates represent.
When smoke enters the ionization chamber, it disrupts this current -- the smoke particles attach to the ions and neutralize them. The smoke detector senses the drop in current between the plates and sets off the horn.
Speaking of alarms, whenever the words "nuclear radiation" are used an alarm goes off in many people's minds. The amount of radiation in a smoke detector is extremely small. It is also predominantly alpha radiation. Alpha radiation cannot penetrate a sheet of paper, and it is blocked by several centimeters of air. The americium in the smoke detector could only pose a danger if you were to inhale it. Therefore, you do not want to be playing with the americium in a smoke detector, poking at it, or disturbing it in any way, because you don't want it to become airborne.
If you feel like you are getting a false alarm from your smoke alarm (not a low battery chirp) often, please review the following known reasons:
It is likely that the reason your smoke alarm keeps chirping and beeping is that the battery is low. Whenever your smoke alarm keeps chirping, replace the battery immediately.
It is important that you frequently test your smoke alarms. When you are testing your smoke alarm, there are a number of reasons why the alarm might not sound:
It is normal for smoke alarms to go off and sound briefly (up to 5-10 seconds) when you install a new battery or when they are powered up. If the alarm continues to go off and no smoke is present, the cause may be one of the following:
There are a number of possible causes for your smoke alarm to keep chirping even with a new battery.
Check your User's Manual or the nameplate on the back of the alarm. Different smoke detectors use different kinds of batteries - 9V, AA, AAA - it all depends on the particular model you have. Use quality batteries like lithium smoke detector batteries - having plenty of power is worth any extra cost. Never use rechargeable batteries because they may not always provide a consistent charge.
First Alert smoke alarm owner's manuals are available online for download at no cost. Find your alarm in our Smoke Alarms section.
Actual battery service life depends on the particular design of your smoke or carbon monoxide alarm and the environment in which it is installed. All kinds of alarm batteries specified in the user's manual are acceptable replacement batteries. Regardless of the manufacturer's suggested battery life, you MUST replace the batteries immediately once the unit starts "chirping" (the "low battery warning"). It is recommended that you replace the batteries in your alarms when you change your clocks for daylight saving time. Also consider replacing your current alarms with 10-Year Life alarms that never require a costly battery replacement for the ten year life of the alarm. This 10-Year series is available in smoke, carbon monoxide and combination alarms.
It is important that you have the proper placement for your smoke alarms. Install your alarms at least 20 feet from appliances like furnaces and ovens, which produce combustion particles. Alarms should be at least 10 feet from high humidity areas like showers and laundry rooms, and at least 3 feet from heat/AC vents. Be sure to install a smoke alarm in each bedroom, one at the top of each stairwell, and one on every level.
Smoke alarms have a limited life. Although each smoke alarm and all of its parts have passed many stringent tests and are designed to be as reliable as possible, any of these parts could fail over time. Therefore, you must test the devices weekly. The unit should be replaced immediately if it is not operating properly. The performance of smoke alarms older than 10 years is simply not reliable. To ensure your family's safety, all carbon monoxide and smoke/CO combination alarms need to be replaced every 5-7 years. All smoke alarms need to be replaced every 10 years.
If it's time to replace your alarms, consider the 10-Year Life series and never have to worry about a battery replacement for the life of the alarm. 10-Year alarms are available in smoke, carbon monoxide and combination alarms.
There are generally two types of smoke alarms - ionization smoke alarms and photoelectric smoke alarms. Smoke particles of a varying number and size are produced in all fires. Ionization smoke alarms are generally more sensitive than photoelectric smoke alarms at sensing small particles, which tend to be produced in greater amounts by hot, flaming fires that are consuming combustible materials rapidly and may spread quickly. Sources of these fires may include paper burning in a wastebasket, or a grease fire in the kitchen. Photoelectric smoke alarms are generally more sensitive than ionization smoke detectors at sensing large smoke particles, which tend to be produced in greater amounts by smoldering fires, which may smolder for hours before bursting into flame. Sources of these fires may include cigarettes burning in couches or bedding. For maximum protection, use both types of technology, such as in the Dual Sensor Smoke Alarm, on each level and in every bedroom of your home.
Battery operated Dual Ionization and Photoelectric Sensor Smoke Alarms offer maximum protection against both primary types of fires. This alarm actively seeks out flaming and smoldering fires with tremendous precision. Smoke from cooking or even shower steam can sometimes set off a smoke alarm. The photoelectric sensor on the First Alert Dual Sensor Smoke Alarm is sensitive to smoldering fires while reducing false alarms. The photoelectric sensor is smart enough to distinguish real threats from everyday activities, resulting in fewer annoying false alarms. The fire detector is hardwired, but it also features a battery backup to help ensure the smoke alarm can still function in the event of a power outage. The unit requires two AA batteries, and comes with a low-power indicator to alert you when they need to be replaced.
This smoke & fire alarm is for you if:
This battery operated Ionization Smoke Alarm comes equipped with an extended lithium battery. This long-life battery is warranted for 10 years! You'll never have reason to change the battery for the duration of the alarm's lifespan. This is especially convenient for property owners who don't necessarily trust their tenants to replace batteries annually. This is also the ultimate in peace of mind when it comes to reassuring a decade's worth of protection for those who may be forgetful! This alarm comes equipped with a mute feature that will silence your alarm in the instance of cooking or shower steam.
This is the right smoke alarm for you if:
This First Alert Hardwired Smoke Alarm wires directly into your home's electrical system.This hardwired smoke detector uses an ionization smoke sensor to reliably detect smoke from hot, fast-flaming fires. This alarm comes equipped with a battery backup and a mute button. You won't ever have to worry about alarm failure due to a power outage. The built-in battery provides assurance of maximum coverage. This unit also features the easily accessible battery door and convenient mute feature.
This is the right smoke alarm for you if:
These are the standard Smoke Alarms found all over the country and feature an Ionization Smoke Sensor. Additions include: Battery Operation, Mute Button and Test Function. These are often utilized for their reliability.
This is the right alarm for you if:
Dual Ionization & Smoke Alarms are the only smoke detectors to feature both an Ionization and Photoelectric Sensor! Dual Alarms provide excellent protection from both slow and rapid fires alike. Dual-Sensor Smoke and Fire Alarm provides early warning of both flaming and smoldering fires. Additionally, its intelligent sensing technology is designed to cut down on nuisance alarms from cooking smoke or other common false-alarm triggers. A single button both silences and tests the smoke detector for simple operation. The battery-powered fire detector can be easily installed anywhere without wires.
This is the right alarm for you if:
You want to easily mute unwanted alarms with the press of a button.
This Smoke Alarm comes equipped with a light to assist you in escaping a fire. The presence of Heavy Smoke often carries the threat of reducing your visibility. The addition of a light is perfect for revealing your path of escape.
This is the right smoke detector for you if:
These Smoke Alarms were specifically designed for those suffering from a hearing impairment. Featuring a powerful 177 candela strobe light, these smoke alarms meet all of the requirements penned in the Americans with Disabilities Act. The 1120VAC Hardwired Alarms wire directly into your home's electrical system.
This smoke & fire alarm is for you if:
The Photoelectric Sensor Smoke Alarm is an eco friendly option that features a completely recyclable battery. The utilization of Photoelectric Smoke Sensing Technology has been realized and successfully distinguishes between cooking smoke, shower steam and legitimate threats. This unit also features the ever popular means of accessing a mute feature to instantly silence false alarms.
This is the right smoke detector for you if:
The First Alert Tamperproof Lithium Powered Detector was the first available smoke alarm proven to last ten years without battery replacement. This feature makes it a favorite amongst landlord/tenant users who may forget to replace their regular powered alarms annually. This Smoke Alarm also includes an Ionization Smoke Sensor.
This is the right smoke & fire alarm for you if:
The First Alert PRC710 Slim Photoelectric Smoke and Carbon Monoxide Alarm with 10-Year Battery helps protect your home from two potentially deadly threats by providing up to a decade of uninterrupted monitoring. Equipped with dual sensors, this low-profile alarm detects smoke from slow-burning, smoldering fires. Half as thick as a standard alarm, this detector has a slim, contemporary design that mounts unobtrusively on a wall or ceiling. A built-in 10-year lithium-ion battery provides continuous power, with no need to ever worry about changing the battery during the lifetime of the alarm.
This smoke and CO detector is for you if: